avangard-pressa.ru

Replacements of sentence types - Психология

The usual types of replacements are the substitution of a simple sentence by a complex one and vice versa; of the principal clause by a subordinate one and vice versa; the replacement of subordination by coordination and vice versa; the replacement of asyndeton by polysyndeton and vice versa. These kinds of replacements are often caused by the existence of various complexes and structures in the English language, e.g.

I saw him cross the street and buy a newspaper.

Я видел, как перешел улицу и купил газету.

A simple sentence is replaced by a complex one.

Marsel Daussault, the airplane manufacturer who is said to be the richest man in France had defrauded the government of $ 300 million in taxes.

Марсель Дассо, владелец авиастроительной компании, который, как говорят, является самым богатым человеком во Франции, обокрал правительство, не выплатив 300 миллионов долларов налогов.

Simple sentences containing infinitive complexes are usually translated by complex sentences.

A simple sentence with an absolute participle or a nominative absolute construction is usually rendered by a subordinate or coordinate complex sentence.

Withthe fog rolling away and the sun shining out of a sky of icy blue the trevellers started on the leg of their climb. (Trevanian)

Когда туман поднялся и солнце засияло на холодном голубом небе, альпинисты начали последний этап своего восхождения.

It should also be noted that the type of the subordinate clause may be changed on the strength of usage.

She glanced at Brendon, where he sat on a chair across her. (W.Deeping).

Она посмотрела на Брендона, который сидел на стуле против нее.

The adverb “where” probably does not function here as an adverb of place but rather as a word qualifying the sitter.

Apart from replacing a simple sentence by a subordinated or coordinated complex sentence it can also be replaced by two, or more simple sentences. It is especially practiced in the translation of the so-called “leads”. A lead is the first sentence of news-in-brief which contains the main point of the information. It usually coincides with the first paragraph and is usually divided into two or more sentences in translation.

Thousands of Algerians tonight fled from the “dead city” of Orleanswille after a twelve-second earthquake had ripped through central Algeria, killing an estimated 1,100 people.

1. Тысячи жителей бежали сегодня ночью из «мертвого города» Орлеанвиля, спасаясь от землетрясения, длившегося двенадцать секунд.

2. Землетрясение произошло в центральных районах Алжира.

3. По предварительным данным погибло 1.100 человек.

On the other hand a complex sentence may by replaced by a simple one.

It was at the 5th Congress that the Great Russian writer Maxim Gorky met Lenin for the first time.

Великий русский писатель Максим Горький впервые встретился с Лениным на 5 съезде партии.

He could not say anything unless he was prompted. (Taylor Caldwell).

Без подсказки он не мог и слова сказать.

Additions

The tendency towards compression both in the grammatical and the lexical systems of the English language often makes additions necessary and indispensable. Much has already been said about additions that accompany transpositions and replacements. This is particularly true in the translation of infinitive, participle and gerundial complexes. There are other cases when additions are caused by compressed structures such as the absolute possessive, attributes formed by juxtaposition N1 + N2 structures and by attributive groups.

The model N1 + N2 often requires additions in translation: riot police – специальные отряды полиции для подавления уличных беспорядков; death vehicle – автомашина, убившая прохожего, bare beaches – пляжи, где можно купаться без костюмов.

Sometimes additions are required by pragmatic considerations: pay claim – требование повышения заработной платы, welfare cuts – урезывание бюджетных ассигнований на социальные нужды; herring ban – запрещение ловить сельдь в Северном море.

Attributive groups are another case in point. The elements forming such groups vary in number, their translation into Russian as a rule requires additions, e.g. oil thirsty Europe – Европа, испытывающая нехватку нефти; Jobs-for-youth Club – клуб, ставящий своей целью обеспечить молодежь работой.

A handful of dates and a cup of coffee habit (J.Galsworthy)

Привычка питаться горсточкой фиников и чашкой кофе.

Attributive groups present great variety because of the number and character of the component elements. The main task facing the translator is to establish their semantic and syntactic relations with the word they modify, e.g.

Three Nicosia Greek language newspapers – Три газеты на греческом языке, выходящие в Никозии.

The decoding of an attributive group, however, does not always involve additions, but merely transpositions and replacements, e.g.

A million pound forged bank draft fraud – Афера с поддельным векселем на миллион фунтов стерлингов.

Additions are also caused by discrepancy in the use of the plural and singular forms of certain nouns.

Delegates from various industries – представители различных отраслей промышленности.

They (the imperialists) have built up dangerous tensions in the world with an arms race of unprecedented cost and size.

Империалисты создали опасные очаги напряженности в мире, развернув небывалую и дорогостоящую гонку вооружений.

Additions are not infrequently caused by lexical reasons. A single instance may suffice here as the problem will be considered at length in the following chapter. Additions are indispensable in the translation of verbs which bring forth in some context two semes simultaneously.

…Mr Ames complained his way out of bed … and went to the door.

(J.Steinbeck)

Мистер Эймс, кряхтя, вылез из постели и поплелся к входной двери.

Another cause of additions is English word building, e.g. conversation and the use of some non-equivalent suffixes.

We showered and dressed.

Мы приняли душ и оделись.

The peace campaign snowballed rapidly.

Кампания в защиту мира росла с невероятной быстротой.

He is a chancer.

Он человек, который любит рисковать.

Omissions

Some lexical or structural elements of the English sentence may be regarded as redundant from the point of view of translation as they are not consonant with the norms and usage of the Russian language, e.g.

For the fishermen of Rebun, the notion that young outsiders may choose to adopt their way of life is both fascinating and perplexing.

Рыбакам острова Ребун кажется удивительным и странным, что приезжая молодежь может предпочесть их образ жизни.

Two omissions have been made here. The meaning of the word “notion” is implied in the predicate of the Russian sentence and this word can safely be left out. The verb “to choose” and “to adopt” may be regarded as synonymous and the meaning of these two verbs is fully covered by the Russian verb предпочесть which implies choice.

Some typical cases of redundancy may be mentioned here: synonymous pairs, the use of weights and measures with emphatic intent, subordinate clauses of time and place.

Homogeneous synonymous pairs are used in different styles of the language. Their use is traditional and can be explained by extra-linguistic reasons: the second member of the pair of Anglo-Saxon origin was added to make clear the meaning of the first member borrowed from the French language, e.g. my sire and father. Itwas done as O.Jespersen writes in his book “Growth and Structure of the English language” “…for the benefit of those who were refined expression”. Gradually synonymous pairs have become a purely stylistic device. They are often omitted in translation even in official documents as pleonastic, e.g.

Equality of treatment in trade and commerce. – Равные возможности в торговле.

The purposes of the Western Powers in pouring arms into Israel have been open and unconcealed.

Западные державы никогда не скрывали своих целей, поставляя оружие Израилю.

The broadest definition is that the Arctic is the region of permafrost or permanently frozen subsoil.

Самое широкое определение Арктики – это область вечной мерзлоты.

Words denoting measures and weights are frequently used in describing people or abstract notions. They are either omitted or replaced in translation.

Every inch of his face expressed amazement. (P.G.Wodehouse).

На его лице было написано изумление.

He extracted every ounce of emotion from Rachmaninov’s Third Concerto.

Он показал всю эмоциональность Третьего концерта Рахманинова.

Subordinate clauses of time and of place are frequently felt to be redundant in Russian and are omitted in translation.

The storm was terrific while it lasted.

Буря была ужасная.

Sometimes even an attributive clause may be regarded as redundant and should be omitted in translation.

And yet the migrants still pour in from the depressed Northeast of Brasil, many of them walking the 1.000 miles or more in search og a better life than the one they left.

И тем не менее, переселенцы все еще прибывают из района бедствия на Северо-востоке Бразилии; многие из них проходят расстояние в тысячу миль и более в поисках лучшей жизни.

The grammatical structure of any language is as important as its word-stock or vocabulary. Grammatical meanings are no less significant than lexical meaning as they express such fundamental categories as tense relations, gender, number, modality, categories of definiteness and indefiniteness, etc. Some of these categories may be expressed grammatically in different ways owing to the existence of grammatical synonymy. But sometimes they can also be expressed lexically.

The main translation principle should never be lost sight of – what is expressed in another, generally by means of transformations.

LECTURE

LEXICAL PROBLEMS